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Search returned 179 results using Keyword: "Measures of student learning"



1. Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO).
The Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes will test what students in higher education know and can do upon graduation. More than a ranking, AHELO is a direct evaluation of student performance. It will provide data on the relevance and quality of teaching and learning in higher education. The test aims to be global and valid across diverse cultures, languages and different types of institutions.
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2. Building Engagement and Attainment for Minority Students (BEAMS).
Specifically focused on student engagement and student learning, the BEAMS program worked with MSIs to improve student engagement and success. Over 100 baccalaureate MSIs were involved in the program.
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3. 2012. From goal to reality: 40-40-20: A Report on strategies to meet Oregon's 40-40-20 education goals.
Centering around the goals set by the passage of Oregon Senate Bill 253, this collection outlines actions to take for the state university system to realize it goals of having eighty-percent of its adult residents hold at least an associates degree by 2025.
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4. Journal of Educational Measurement.
The Journal of Educational Measurement (JEM) publishes original measurement research, provides reviews of measurement publications, and reports on innovative measurement applications. The topics addressed will interest those concerned with the practice of measurement in field settings, as well as be of interest to measurement theorists. In addition to presenting new contributions to measurement theory and practice, JEM also serves as a vehicle for improving educational measurement applications in a variety of settings.
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5. 2003. National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL).
The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy is a nationally representative assessment of English literacy among American adults age 16 and older. Sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), NAAL is the nation's most comprehensive measure of adult literacy since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS).
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6. New England Consortium on Assessment and Student Learning.
In collaboration with the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, NECASL initiated an innovative assessment project exploring how students learn and how they make important decisions about their academic programs.
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7. OECD feasibility study for the international Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO).
The OECD Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO) is a ground-breaking initiative to assess learning outcomes on an international scale by creating measures that would be valid for all cultures and languages. Between ten and thirty-thousand higher education students in over ten different countries will take part in a feasibility study to determine the bounds of this ambitious project, with an eye to the possible creation of a full-scale AHELO upon its completion.
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8. Quality matters.
An online subscription service that seeks to improve online education in multiple educational contexts, from K-12 to higher education. Located on the site is a host of resources that reflect a faculty focused approach towards evaluating student learning in online courses. Among other things, the site contains resources regarding workshops, faculty-centered models for online learning in addition to research reports.
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9. Student Assessment of their Learning Gains.
The SALG instrument focuses exclusively on the degree to which a course has enabled student learning.
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10. TRIADS Assessment of Online Learning.
A collaborative project between the University of Liverpool, the University of Derby and the Open University to improve quality of learning by promoting a “learning outcomes led” approach to curriculum design through the development of an assessment delivery system.
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11. (Eds.) Collins, K. and Roberts, D. 2012. Learning is not a sprint: Assessing and documenting student leader learning in cocurricular involvement.
Student affairs professionals are increasingly being asked to provide evidence that students are learning and growing through their experiences on campus. Stakeholders such as accrediting agencies, legislators, families, employers, faculty, and students all have opinions about what individuals should be learning in college. Students learn in all contexts, from resolving roommate conflicts, to managing a complex student organization budget, to making a persuasive speech in front of the student government. The task of assessing and documenting student learning outside the traditional classroom presents a unique set of challenges: there are no grades given at the end of an experience, the skills developed may not fit into one academic area, and there are no national standards or summative curriculum. Learning is Not a Sprint: Assessing and Documenting Student Leader Learning in Cocurricular Involvement offers multiple perspectives and a framework to establish and document student learning in the cocurricular env
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12. Abbas, Andrea; McLean, Monica. Nov 2007. Qualitative Research as a Method for Making Just Comparisons of Pedagogic Quality in Higher Education: A Pilot Study.
This article suggests alternatives to comparing pedagogy between universities in order to internationalize higher education.
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13. Abramovich, S., Schunn, C., & Higashi, R. . 2013. Are badges useful in education?: It depends upon the type of badge and expertise of learner.

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14. Ackermann, E. Summer 2007. Program Assessment in Academic Libraries: An Introduction for Assessment Practitioners.
This paper addresses recent changes in the perception of libraries’ functions in higher education and developments in measurement tools. The report looks at three issues at the helm of library assessment: (1) the tradition of assessment in libraries; (2) the current state of affairs and challenges of assessing the following library components: instruction, services, and resources; and (3) implications for the future of library assessment.
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15. ACT. 2008. New accountability tool helps students find right college.
The article provides information on how the Collegiate Assessment of Academic Proficiency (CAAP)is being used by institutions as one of the preferred learning outcomes assessment instruments for the Voluntary System of Accountability.
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16. Ady, K., Kinsella, K., & Paynter, A. 2015. Digital distinction: Badges add a new dimension to adult learning..
As a part of a professional learning team, educators are constantly looking for new approaches and designs that promote deeper adult learning. This article describes how educators at Cherry Creek School District in Colorado developed a digital badge system that recognizes the work teachers are doing, supports a culture and climate of celebration, and focuses learning on mastery of content in smaller steps.
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17. Alderman, K., Liang, X., & Vonderwell, S. 2013. Asynchronous discussions and assessment in online learning.
This article presents a case study that used a thematic analysis approach to analyze graduate-level asynchronous online courses towards understanding appropriate approaches for online assessments. The authors argue that both formative (assessment for learning) and summative (assessment of learning) assessments are needed in online learning environments. Emphasis is put on how discussions among students and instructors in online asynchronous courses fit into the understanding of online learning and assessments.
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18. Ambrose, S. A., & Poklop, L. 2015, January/February. Do Students Really Learn from Experience?.
“For more than a century, experiential learning—most notably cooperative education—has been embedded in the curriculum at Northeastern University. The original program placed eight students in four companies, in an “earn-learn-earn-learn” model that enabled students to pay for their tuition with the income from their co-op jobs.”
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19. Ambrose, S.A., Bridges, M.W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M.C., & Norman, M.K. 2010. How learning works: 7 research-based principles for smart teaching.
In this practical guide, Ambrose and colleagues present an extensive series of examples of some common problems and misunderstandings that frequently occur in classrooms at all levels of instruction. Each section then explains what well-known and researched learning principle is responsible for that type of event, or how it can be used to fix that problem. Very accessible and easily understandable, the authors here provide a list of tools and fix-it strategies, well-grounded in research and psychological theory, useful for educators.
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20. Ammons, J. L., & Mills, S. K. 2005. Course-embedded assessments for evaluating crossfunctional integration and improving the teaching-learning process.
This paper offers a case study of the process of defining a competency, specifying intended learning outcomes, selecting course-embedded assessment methods, evaluating the results, and using that information to guide changes in the teaching-learning process.
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21. Anderson, P., Gonyea, R.M., Anson, C.M., & Paine, C. 2015. The Contributions of Writing to Learning and Development: Results from a Large-Scale Multi-institutional Study.
This article explores how and to what degree writing in college is associated with learning and development. The study examined survey responses from over 70,000 first-year and senior students enrolled at 80 colleges/universities in the U.S., and was a partnership between NSSE and CWPA.
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22. Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. 1993. Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers.
This revised and greatly expanded edition of the 1988 handbook offers teachers at all levels how-to advise on classroom assessment
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23. Association of American Colleges and Universities. 2009. Assessing learning outcomes: Lessons from AAC&U’s VALUE project.
The entire Winter 2009 edition of Peer Review addresses the VALUE project. Information presented includes an overview of the project, information on e-portfolios, application of rubrics, assessment process, and the use of assessment results for improvements.
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24. Association of American Colleges and Universities. 2008. Our students' best work: A framework for accountability worthy of our mission .
This document "framed and approved by the AAC&U Board of Directors, is designed to help campuses respond to calls for greater accountability in ways that strengthen as well as document the quality of student learning in college." (p. iii)
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25. Baker, G. R. April 2012. Texas A&M International University: A culture of assessment INTEGRATEd.
Texas A&M International University was selected as a NILOA case study institution due to 1) its commitment to choosing assessments and tools appropriate for its students, 2) its long history with and innovative approach to assessment, and 3) the influential role of professional development at the institution to help prepare “Assessment Champions” and expand the number of “pockets of excellence” in terms of assessment practices throughout the campus.
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26. Banta, T. W., Pike, G. R., Hansen, M. J. 2009. The use of engagement data in accreditation, planning and assessment.
This article provides a basis for the use of evidence in institutional decision making and planning. The authors identify four steps in creating a “culture of evidence.” These include: goal setting, identifying assessment measures, tracking/data collection analysis, and application of findings. NSSE results are uses as examples of understanding the four steps.
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27. Bember, V., Trwoler, P., Saunders, M., & Knight, P. 2009. Enhancing learning, teaching, assessment and curriculum in higher education.
Using case studies and theoretical frameworks, this book invites readers to conceptualize improvement within their institution.
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28. Bengiamin, N.N., & Leimer, C. (2012). SLO-based grading makes assessment an integral part of teaching.
This study investigates whether grades can be used as effective assessment if certain deficits of grading are addressed.
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29. Beyl, C. A. 2011. Still striving: Using a hypothetical university to demonstrate holistic assessment at the university, program and course level.
In this paper, WMU, a hypothetical university is examined. Beginning with an academic audit, WMU used this information to assess student learning outcomes at the university, program, and course level. Through intrusive institutional research and assessment, WMU was able to create a quality enhancement plan to fit their needs and address what they had learned about student learning.
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30. Blaney, J.,Filer, K., & Lyon, J. Summer 2014. Assessing High Impact Practices Using NVivo: An Automated Approach to Analyzing Student Reflections for Program Improvement.
Roanoke College developed a system to automate the qualitative coding process using NVivo, a software analysis tool, allowing them to identify patterns in student learning that indicate effective and ineffective aspects of applied learning experiences. The NVivo query approach led to increased efficiency in the assessment of most HIPs included in the experiential learning program at Roanoke College.
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31. Bowen, K. . 2014. Badges: A common currency for learning.
The article discusses the use of digital badges, or open badges, in higher education as common currency and documentation of educational outcomes. Topics include the development of the Mozilla Foundation's Mozilla Open Badges infrastructure in 2011, the mobile device application Passport, developed in 2012 by Purdue University, and the benefits of digital badges for career prospects. Commentary from Mozilla senior director of learning Erin Knight is provided.
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32. Braskamp, L. A. 2009. Internationalization in higher education: Four issues to consider.
Braskamp argues that educators must consider ideas about internationalization as experiential learning.
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33. Brennan, R. L., Goa, X., & Colton, D. A. 1995. Generalizability analyses of work keys listening and writing tests.
An article on the psychometric characteristics of the listening and writing test of the WorkKeys program.
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34. Bresciani, M. Summer 2011. Identifying barriers in implementing outcomes-based assessments program review: A grounded theory analysis.
While conversations proposing standardized testing within higher education abound (Allen & Bresciani, 2003; Department of Education (DOE), 2006; Ewell, 1997a, 1997b; Ewell & Jones, 1996; Maki, 2004; Palomba & Banta, 1999), proponents of outcomes-based assessment program review are still applauding the value and extent that the process can be used to inform decisions to improve student learning and development (Bresciani, 2006; Bresciani, Zelna, & Anderson, 2004; Huba & Freed, 2000; Maki, 2004; Mentkowski, 2000; Palomba & Banta, 1999; Suskie, 2004). As such, practitioners of outcomes-based assessment continue to seek various ways to meaningfully engage in outcomes-based assessment program review in order to find ways to improve student learning and development.
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35. Bresciani, M. J. August 2011. Making assessment meaningful: What new student affairs professionals and those new to assessment need to know.
With the growing demands of assessment becoming more widespread throughout higher education institutions, knowledge about assessment for new student affairs professionals is even more critical. Marilee J. Bresciani provides a quick overview as to how new student affairs professionals can contribute both effectively and meaningfully to assessment practices at their institution.
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36. Bresciani, M.J., Zelna, C.L., & Anderson, J.A. 2004. Assessing student learning and development: A handbook for practitioners.
This handbook argues the importance of student learning assessment and gives the reader a toolbox of techniques and examples for student learning and development assessment.
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37. Breslow, L., Lienhard, J., Masi, B., Seering, W., & Ulm, F. 2008. How do we know if students are learning?.
This Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty newsletter reported the efforts by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), departments in the School of Engineering (SoE), and the School’s Director of Education Innovation and Assessment towards assessing their students’ learning outcomes. The newsletter covers the multi-perspective approach that was taken to account for student learning outcomes, including both top-down and bottom–up approaches of assessing student learning. Engineering faculty were also engaged in a process of determining some of the most effective methods for assessing their students learning outcomes, including conducting experiments with the guidance of the school’s Teaching and Learning Laboratory (TTL).
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38. Bridges, B. K., Kinzie, J., Nelson Laird, T. F., & Kuh, G. D. 2008. Student engagement and student success at historically Black and Hispanic-serving institutions.
This book chapter provides examples of the use of student engagement assessments and data to promote student success at MSIs.
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39. Brint, Steven. May-June 2008. The Spellings Commission and the Case for Professionalizing College Teaching.
This article examines the challenge of accountability as presented in Margaret Spelling's Commission on the Future of Higher Education, current measures for learning outcomes, the Collegiate Learning Assessment, and argues for bringing professionalism to higher education.
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40. Brookhart, S. M. 1999. The art and science of classroom assessment: The missing part of pedagogy.
Discusses the quality of individual student assessments in higher education courses and their composite effect on course grades. Reviews the literature on making classroom assessments and their impact on the science of student assessment.
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41. Brophy, J.E. 2010. Motivating students to learn.
From the Publisher: “Written specifically for teachers, this book offers a wealth of research-based principles for motivating students to learn. Its focus on motivational principles rather than motivation theorists or theories leads naturally into discussion of specific classroom strategies. Throughout the book these principles and strategies are tied to the realities of contemporary schools (e.g., curriculum goals) and classrooms (e.g., student differences, classroom dynamics). The author employs an eclectic approach to motivation that shows how to effectively integrate the use of extrinsic and intrinsic strategies. Guidelines are provided for adapting motivational principles to group and individual differences and for doing 'repair work' with students who have become discouraged or disaffected learners.”
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42. Bryant, J. L. 2006. Assessing expectations and perceptions of the campus experience: The Noel-Levitz Student Satisfaction Inventory.
This chapter describes the content and implementation of the Noel-Levitz Student Satisfaction Inventory (SSI) and explains its importance and utility for community colleges.
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43. Buyarski, C.A., & Landis, C.M. 2014. Using an ePortfolio to assess the outcomes of a first-year seminar: student narrative and authentic assessment.
The authors analyzed at 47 ePortfolios of first-year seminar students. Using the combination of a rubric and identification of authentic evidence, results suggested that the ePortfolio can thoroughly assess student learning when combined with a rubric and examining authentic evidence.
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44. Carr-Lopez, S. Galal, S, Vyas, D, Patel, R., & E. Gnesa. 2014. The utility of concept maps to facilitate higher-level learning in a large classroom setting.
The authors address the issue of engaging students to learn information rather than memorize in pharmacy curricula based classes. The authors wanted to understand how students can engage in active learning through the use of concept maps. Accordingly, they wrote about a study that compared test scores between an experimental and control group. They determined that concept maps helped students’ experience meaningful learning.
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45. Casilli, C., & Knight, E. 2014. Seven things you should know about badges.
This article provides a brief overview of badges, how they work, and the advantages and disadvantages of using badges to assess, recognize and validate learning.
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46. Center for Instructional Innovation and Assessment. Classroom assessment technique: Concept maps [Video File].
An informative video regarding the use of concept maps for classroom purposes. The video outlines distinctions between concept maps and mind maps, provides insight on how to engage students during classes using mapping exercises, and provides advice on how teachers may use concept maps for assessing learning outcomes.
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47. Cerbin, B. Cerbin, B. Exploring how students learn.
Dr. Cerbin’s web site offers a collection of short write-ups and videos regarding student learning at the university level.
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48. Chan, C. K. Y., Tam, V. W. L., & Fok, W. T. T. 2013. Traditional and modern MCQ methods as in-class formative assessment.
This study was designed to compare three different Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) delivery methods namely clickers, pen and paper MCQs and online elearning MCQs on the effectiveness of student engagement used as an in-class formative assessment. The results were also compared without the use of any formative assessment.
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49. Chen, H. L., & Light, T. P. 2010. Electronic portfolios and student success: Effectiveness, efficiency, and learning.
This publication presents an overview of electronic portfolios and ways individuals and campuses can implement e-portfolios to enhance and assess student learning, recognizing that learning occurs in many places, takes many forms, and is exhibited through many modes of representation. This work is illustrated through multiple campus case study examples.
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50. Chickering, A. & Braskamp, L. A. 2009. Developing a global perspective for personal and social responsibility.
"The authors of this article argue that this essential learning and developmental goal—which we call global perspective—can be enhanced if it is further interpreted within the context of educating students to be citizens of a global society."
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51. Collins, R. K. 2010. Fueling the race to postsecondary success: A 48-institution study of prior learning assessment and adult student outcomes.
Prior Learning Assessment, or PLA, is another important and often overlooked strategy for helping adults progress towards a degree. PLA is the process by which many colleges evaluate for academic credit the college-level knowledge and skills an individual has gained outside of the classroom (or from non-college instructional programs), including employment, military training/service, travel, hobbies, civic activities and volunteer service. PLA recognizes and legitimizes the often significant learning in which adults have engaged in many parts of their lives.
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52. Council of Independent Colleges. 2008. Evidence of learning: Applying the collegiate learning assessment to improve teaching and learning in the liberal arts college experience.
The Council of Independent Colleges sponsored report presents the experience of a consortium of 33 CIC member colleges and universities with the CLA over a period of three years.
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53. Crowe, M., & Sheppard, L. 2012. Mind Mapping Research Methods.
While conducting research can be a confusing process, mind mapping can help students improve their growth by visualizing the research process. For this reason, mind mapping can be a useful teaching tool for teachers in the process of helping students to learn about and/or conduct research. Not only can mind mapping help students see and make decisions regarding their research projects, but it also helps teachers facilitate students understanding of the research process.
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54. Davidson, C. N., & Goldberg, D. T. 2003. hastac: Changing the way we teach and learn.
This page provides a number of resources including articles, webinars, and videos on digital badges.
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55. Davies, M. . 2010. Concept mapping, mind mapping and argument mapping: What are the differences and do they matter?.
The author argues that the successful use of mapping regarding student learning is dependent on teachers’ purposes. The use of mapping, whether concept, mind, or argumentative, can aid in student learning, but the context and aims of the teacher ought to guide which method to engage with students. Towards addressing this dilemma, the author makes distinctions among these three forms of mapping and helps identify the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
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56. De Leon, A. G. 2007. The collegiate learning assessment: A tool for measuring the value added of a liberal arts education.
This article presents a brief history and an overview of the test along with examples of colleges that have used it. It ends with a look to the future of the CLA.
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57. DeAngelo, L., Hurtado, S. Pryor, J. H., Kelly, K. R., Santos, J. L., & Korn, W. S. 2009. The American college teacher: National norms for the 2007-2008 HERI faculty survey.
This brief looks at the data collected from the HERI faculty survey data from 2007-2008 and picks out general themes including: goals for undergraduate education, student-centered pedagogy, engaged scholarship, views on diversity, and female professors.
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58. Debra Humphreys, Heather McCambly, and Judith Ramaley. October 07, 2015. The Quality of a College Degree: Toward New Frameworks, Evidence, and Interventions.
This report builds on information and recommendations from AAC&U's DQP Quality Collaboratives project. Authors offer recommendations for more efficient and effective transfer from two-year to four-year institutions in terms of student achievement of learning outcomes expressed in the Degree Qualifications Profile. The report also shares a framework for bridging educators with state and policy makers to ensure educational quality.
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59. Del Rios, M., & Leegwater, L. 2008. Increasing student success at minority-serving institutions: Findings from the Beams project.
The primary purpose of Building Engagement and Attainment for Minority Students (BEAMS) is to help institutions cultivate data-driven initiatives that promote student learning, engagement and success. The BEAMS Report discusses findings from those MSIs who participated in its’ project from 2004-2008. Teams were given assistance in building a culture of evidence to help inform their decision making concerning their institution.
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60. Diamond, R. M. 2008. Designing and assessing courses and curricula: A practical guide. (3rd ed.).
This updated book provides readers with tools and examples for those interested in adopting a learner-centered approach in their courses.
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61. Dugan, J. P. & Komives, S. R. 2007. Developing leadership capacity in college students: Findings from a national study.
This report of the Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership (MSL) reflects key findings from a multi-site, multi-year project. This report includes findings from over 50,000 students from 52 campuses who participated in this study in the Spring of 2006.
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62. Dugan, J.P., Garland, J.L., Jacoby, B., & Gasiorski, A. 2008. Understanding commuter student self-efficacy for leadership: A with-in group analysis.
This study used data from the Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership to examine within-group differences between dependent and independent commuters on the key college outcome of leadership self-efficacy (Astin & Astin, 2000). Leadership self-efficacy refers to one's confidence in his or her capacity to lead (Murphy, 2002), and often makes the difference as to whether one actually does lead. The study also examined unique predictors of leadership efficacy for each population. Results reflected statistically significant within-group differences with independent commuters, indicating a greater sense of leadership efficacy than their dependent commuter peers.
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63. Durrant, M.B. & Dorius, C.R. 2007. Study abroad survey instruments: A comparison of survey types and experiences.
This study examines different survey instruments used to assess the experiences of U.S. study abroad participants. The intended audience is international and area study practitioners interested in assessing study abroad programs through postprogram interviews. An interview with the top 20 universities for number of students sent on study abroad reveals a broad picture of the type of survey instruments used across the United States to assess student experiences. Within this context and based on 19 years of data collection from study abroad participants with four data collection modes (a standard questionnaire with multiple choice and open-ended questions, a multiple choice bubble sheet response format, a scanned form, and a Web-based survey), one university’s experience is analyzed in depth to expand on the benefits and drawbacks of specific survey types. Lessons learned about when each type might be appropriate for different institutional goals and situations are presented.
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64. Dwyer, C. A., Millett, C. M. & Payne, D. G. 2006, June. A culture of evidence: Postsecondary assessment and learning outcomes.
To understand the value that a college experience adds to student inputs, three measurements must be addressed: Student input measures (What were student competencies before college?, student output measures (What were student competencies after college?), and a measure of change between inputs and outputs. This paper also briefly reviews principles of fair and valid testing that pertain to the assessments being recommended.
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65. Eubanks, D. 2006. The problem with standardized assessment: There are other, better ways than high-stakes testing to hold institutions accountable for making good on the promises of higher education.
This brief article offers recommendations for other assessments besides that of standardized assessment currently going on in today's higher education institutions.
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66. Ewell, P., Paulson, K., & Kinzie, J. June 2011. Down and in: Assessment practices at the program level.
To follow up the 2009 National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA) report on institutional assessment activity described by chief academic officers, NILOA surveyed program heads in the two and four-year sectors to gain a more complete picture of assessment activity at the program or department level.
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67. Fain, P. 2014. ETS Links Badges to New Assessments.
This Inside Higher Ed Quick Take describes how Educational Testing Service is connecting badges to two tests - the Proficiency Profile and iSkills - assessments that aim to measure what students learn in college. After completing the assessments, students can earn digital badges based on their performance.
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68. Franke, R., Ruiz, S., Sharkness, J. DeAngelo, L. & Pryor, J. H. 2009. Findings from the 2008 administration of the College Senior Survey (CSS): National aggregates.
This report discusses overall trends found through the College Senior Survey from the 2008 data.
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69. Frederiksen, L. 2013. Digital badges.
This column provides a list of articles about Digital Badges, along with abstracts, to serve as a resource for further research.
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70. Gibson, D., Ostashewski, N., Flintoff, K., Grant, S., & Knight, E. . 2015. Digital badges in education.
Digital badges provide new affordances for online educational activities and experiences. When used with points and leaderboards, a badge can become a gamification element allowing learners to compete with themselves or others, and to know how close they are to accomplishing a goal and acquiring its accompanying reputation. In this role, badges motivate continued engagement, which increases time on task and supports skill acquisition through performance. Learning outcomes signified by badges can also be displayed in an e-portfolio or on web sites and are highly transportable to social media sites. In this role they summarize achievement and signal accomplishment. With these characteristics, digital badges have the potential to become an alternative credentialing system, providing visible recognition in digital symbols that link directly via metadata to validating evidence of educational achievements in public displays. This paper traces the brief history of digital badges, defines what they are, gives examples of their use, and discusses their educational affordances.
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71. Gilchrist, D., & Oakleaf, M. April 2012. An essential partner: The librarian’s role in student learning assessment.
Debra Gilchrist and Megan Oakleaf, two leaders in librarianship and assessment, document the ways librarians contribute toward campus efforts of student learning assessment. The paper includes a variety of examples of institutions that have developed student learning assessment processes.
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72. Goff, L., Potter, M. K., Pierre, E., Carey, T., Gullage, A., et al. 2015, March. Learning Outcomes Assessment: A Practitioner’s Handbook.
This handbook from the Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario (HEQCO) serves as a resource for faculty and administrators to design and assess program-level learning outcomes. The handbook includes tips, examples and case studies, and recommendations on methods for developing program-level learning outcomes and assessment.
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73. Gonyea, R. M. & Kuh, G. D. 2009. Using NSSE in institutional research.
This volume discusses the value and relevance of student engagement with an emphasis on how results from NSSE may be used by institutions for various purposes.
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74. Graduate Student Instructor: Teaching & Resource Center. Learning: Theory and research.
This website offers extensive material on the cognition of learning; from theories of learning to methods of instruction, and from principles of memory to the role of motivation. The site has various resources (i.e. the PQ4R method and the practice guide to improve student learning) and defines key terminology en route to developing a useful resource for practitioners and students alike.
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75. Green, M. F. 2012. Measuring and assessing internationalization.
A publication from NAFSA: Association of International Educators examines the performance of institutions and student learning outcomes through two different frameworks. The challenge is for institutions to create a manageable and meaningful approach to understanding the true impact and ultimately the success of internationalization efforts.
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76. Hardison, C. M., & Vilamovska, A. 2009. The collegiate learning assessment: Setting standards for performance at a college or university.
"This report illustrates how institutions can set their own standards on the CLA using a method that is appropriate for the CLA's unique characteristics. The authors examined evidence of reliability and procedural validity of a standard-setting methodology that they developed and applied to the CLA."
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77. Harmon, J., & Copeland, A. . 2016. Students’ perceptions of digital badges in a public library management course.
For the Spring 2015 semester of the Public Library Management course, students were given digital badges along with grades for their coursework. For each topic's corresponding assignment, students received a traditional grade and those achieving at least an A- received a digital badge that represented the skill or knowledge demonstrated. By using digital badges, the students were given the opportunity to experience this growing educational trend and reflect on their role in the learning that takes place in libraries for librarians and library users. To explore the effectiveness of digital badging, students were surveyed to ascertain how they perceived the digital badges they received. The survey results indicated that students were underwhelmed by the experience in terms of their own motivation, their perception of the usefulness of badges for employment and for professional development purposes, and their future personal use of badges.
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78. Harris, C., & Zha, S. 2013. Concept mapping: A critical thinking technique.
This article highlights a study about the use of concept mapping in classrooms conducted with students in an introductory psychology course at a four-year university. The authors sought to understand how concept mapping can support students’ learning. They argue that the use of concept maps encourages students’ learning by promoting abstract thinking, which also supports students’ critical thinking skills.
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79. Harris, D. 2011. Value-added measures in education what every educator needs to know .
This book examines misuse and the use of value-added assessment measures in teacher evaluation and improvement, and policy making.
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80. Harvard Initiative for Learning and Teaching. Concept maps: Are they good for assessment.
This is a PowerPoint that discusses the use of concept maps for assessment purposes. It provides a general understanding of using concept maps in determining student learning and possible outcomes. Included within the PowerPoint are slides about “Why create concept maps?,” “Concept Maps for Assessment,” and “Concept Map activity.” There is also an example rubric in addition to a list of the pros and cons of using concept maps for assessment purposes.
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81. Higher Education Research Institute. 2011. Findings from the 2009 administration of the Your First College Year (YFCY): National aggregates.
This report summarized general findings from the 2010 YFCY.
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82. Hobson, S.M., & Talbot, D. M. 2001. Understanding student evaluation: What all faculty should know.
A review of previous literature on student evaluation and its validity
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83. Hosch, B.J. (2012). Time on test, student motivation, and performance on the collegiate learning assessment: Implications for institutional accountability.
Using results from the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) administered at Central Connecticut State University, a public Carnegie master’s-larger programs university in the Northeast, this study demonstrates time on spent on the test, student motivation, and to a lesser extent the local institutional administration procedures represent problematic intervening variables in the measurement of student learning. Findings from successive administrations of the instrument reveal wide year-to-year variations in student performance related to time on test and motivation. Significant additional study of these factors should likely be prioritized ahead of adoption of accountability practices that rely upon low-stakes testing to measure student learning and demonstrate institutional effectiveness.
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84. Howard, G., & Hickey, D. T. . 2016. Six steps to building high-quality open digital badges.
This article posits that a framework for highlighting how badges operate as meaningful educational assessment tools is needed.
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85. Howell, R.J. 2011. Exploring the impact of grading rubrics on academic performance: Findings from a quasi-experimental, pre-post evaluation.
This purpose of this pre-post, quasi-experimental evaluation was to explore the impact of grading rubric use on student academic performance. Cross-sectional data were derived from 80 undergraduates enrolled in an elective course at a research university during spring and fall 2009. The control group (n = 41), who completed the course’s Assignment #2 without a grading rubric, scored significantly lower, on average, than the treatment group (n = 39), who completed the same assignment, but with access to a grading rubric. The grading rubric constituted an important predictor of assignment performance, the magnitude of which was stronger than college year, major, pre-test score, and gender. Suggestions are provided for future research.
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86. Huba, M. E., & Freed, J. E. 2000. Learner-centered assessment on college campuses: Shifting the focus from teaching to learning.
Huba and Freed present the idea that practitioners must shift their teaching model from one that is teacher-centered to one that is learner-centered. However, assessment must be interwoven with this change, and the book, as a whole, provides a useful framework for learner-centered assessment. Often, the book explicitly states how assessment aids in the learning process, and guides readers through the course of implementation.
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87. Huba, M.E. & Freed, J. E. 1999. Learner-centered assessment on college campuses: Shifting the focus from teaching to learning.
A guide to moving toward student-based assessment and outcomes grounded in constructivist learning theory and continuous improvement.
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88. Hubert, D.A., & Lewis, K.J. 2014. A framework for general education assessment: Assessing information literacy and quantitative literacy with ePortfolios.
Examining 100 random student ePortfolios from General Education courses using two college-wide learning outcomes, the authors reflect on how use of ePortfolios can effectively assess student work. Benefits of using ePortfolios, particularly in General Education, are also discussed.
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89. Hurst, E. J. . 2015. Digital badges: Beyond learning incentives.

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90. Hurtado, S., & DeAngelo, L. 2012, Spring. Linking diversity and civic-minded practices with student outcomes: New evidence from national surveys.
This article examines national data to understand more about the impact of diversity and civic-related practices in regards to specific student outcomes.
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91. In W. Houghton (Ed.), Engineering Subject Centre Guide: Learning and Teaching Theory for Engineering Academics. 2004, March. Deep and surface approaches to learning.
In this document we look at the associated concept of approaches to learning. The original work on approaches to learning was carried out by Marton and Saljo (1976). Their study explored students’ approaches to learning a particular task. Students were given an academic text to read, and were told that they would subsequently be asked questions on that text. The students adopted two differing approaches to learning. The first group adopted an approach where they tried to understand the whole picture and tried to comprehend and understand the academic work. These students were identified with adopting a deep approach to learning. The second group tried to remember facts contained within the text, identifying and focusing on what they thought they would be asked later. They demonstrated an approach that we would recognize as rote learning, or a superficial, surface approach.
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92. Jankowski, N., & Makela, J. P. June 2010. Exploring the landscape: What institutional websites reveal about student learning outcomes assessment activities.
Despite persistent calls for colleges and universities to post student learning outcomes assessment information to their websites, the assessment information that can be found online falls considerably short of the activities reported by chief academic officers. The study finds that institutions are often not taking full advantage of their website to increase transparency regarding student learning outcomes assessment. The researchers share their findings and offer recommendations for institutions.
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93. Jankowski, N., & Provezis, S. November 2011. Making student learning evidence transparent: The state of the art.
Making Student Learning Evidence Transparent: The State of the Art is composed of four sections. The sections cover 1) the impact of national transparency initiatives; 2) the changing landscape of transparency; 3) the display of assessment results and their subsequent use; and 4) a synthesis of the previous three sections.
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94. Janosik, S.M., & Frank, T.E. 2013. Using ePortfolios to Measure Student Learning in a Graduate Preparation Program in Higher Education.

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95. Jaschik, S. October 2009. Turning surveys into reforms.
Inside Higher Ed captures the significant of the 10 year anniversary celebration of NSSE and raises questions for the future of assessments.
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96. Jonsson, A., & Svingby, G. 2006, August. The use of scoring rubrics: Reliability, validity and educational consequences.
75 empirical research studies on rubrics were examined. Rubrics set clear expectations, which also facilitates feedback and self-assessment.
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97. Jovanovic, J. & Devedzic, V. . 2015. Open badges: Novel means to motivate, scaffold and recognize learning.
This report is centered on the emerging concept and technology of Open Badges (OBs) that are offering novel means and practices of motivating, scaffolding, recognizing, and credentialing learning. OBs are closely associated with values such as openness and learners' agency, participatory learning and peer-learning communities. This report points to the distinctive features of OBs and how they have positioned OBs as suitable candidates for addressing some of the pressing challenges in the context of lifelong learning, including (but not limited to) (1) recognition of learning in multiple and diverse environments that go beyond traditional classrooms; (2) recognition of diverse kinds of skills and knowledge, including soft and general skills; (3) support for alternative forms of assessment; (4) the need for transparent and easily verifiable digital credentials. The report also offers an overview of the major issues and challenges that might delay or even prevent widespread adoption of this emerging technology.
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98. Kahneman, D. 2011. Thinking fast and slow.
Written by Daniel Kahneman, one member of the Nobel Prize-winning duo for their work in economics, Thinking Fast and Slow discusses the possibility of a two-system model of human thought and decision-making. The first system is characterized by its speed, and is responsible for our intuitive, emotionally-charged decisions. The second, much slower than the first, is argued to be more deliberative and logical, responsible for our longer-term decisions. He further offers a series of recommendations as to when each system works best for us, as well as practical tricks the user can use to prevent being inefficiently or incorrectly biased by either system.
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99. Kaplan, M., Silver, N., Lavaque-Manty, D., & Meizlish, D. 2013. Using reflection and metacognition to improve student learning: Across the disciplines, across the academy.
Using Reflection and Metacognition to Improve Student Learning takes relatively new findings in cognitive research and education regarding the importance of students’ ability to monitor and reflect on their own learning. This volume presents a series of chapters written by researchers in a variety of disciplines, discussing how metacognitive principles may be integrated into different types of pedagogies to encourage students to more efficiently self-regulate their learning.
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100. Keeling, R. P., Wall, A. F., Underhile, R., & Dungy, G. J. December 15, 2008 . Assessment reconsidered: Institutional effectiveness for student success.
Written by an ensemble of educators with broad experience in assessment theory and practice in higher education, this illuminating work helps both student affairs professionals and faculty members address internal and public questions about the functioning of postsecondary institutions by reconsidering assessment policies, patterns, and practices in colleges and universities. While the book acknowledges and responds to greater expectations for institutional accountability, its focus is on building capacity to engage in evidence-based, reflective practice and supporting educators in doing their best work. Assessment Reconsidered is not primarily a workbook or "how to" manual; instead, it addresses the substantive aspects of assessment and prepares readers to begin or improve assessment practice; it lays the foundation of concepts, knowledge, and skills that is essential for effectiveness.
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101. Kehoe, A., & Goudzwaard, M. . 2015. ePortfolios, badges, and the whole digital self: How evidence-based learning pedagogies and technologies can support integrative learning and identity development.

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102. Kember, D., & Leung, D. Y. 2008. Establishing the validity and reliability of course evaluation questionnaires..
This article uses the case of designing a new course questionnaire to discuss the issues of validity, reliability and diagnostic power in good questionnaire design
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103. Kihlstrom, J. F. 2014, March 19. How students learn: And how we can help them.
This website offers extensive material on the cognition of learning; from theories of learning to methods of instruction, and from principles of memory to the role of motivation. The site has various resources (i.e., the PQ4R method and the practice guide to improve student learning) and defines key terminology en route to developing a useful resource for practitioners and students alike.
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104. Kinzie, J. October 2010. Perspectives from campus leaders on the current state of student learning outcomes assessment: NILOA focus group summary 2009-2010.
This paper highlights lessons from four focus group sessions with campus leaders--presidents, provosts, academic deans and directors of institutional research from a variety of two- and four-year institutions-- regarding their perspectives on the state of learning assessment practices on their campuses.
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105. Klein, S., Benjamin, R., & Bolus, R. 2007. The collegiate learning assessment: Facts and fantasies.
This white paper presents a model of what the CLA does and does not measure, an overview of the instruments used with examples of tasks, and how information on how to interpret the value-added results.
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106. Kuh, G. D. 1999. How are we doing? Tracking the quality of the undergraduate experience, 1960s to the present.
This paper examines the quality of the undergraduate experience, drawing upon several decades of CSEQ data.
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107. Kuh, G. D. 2003. What we're learning about student engagement from NSSE: Benchmarks for effective educational practices.
After a brief outline about the evolution and status of NSSE, the article summarizes what has been learned thus far regarding patterns of engagement of different groups of students.
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108. Kuh, G. D., Chen, D. P., & Nelson Laird, T. F. 2007. Why teacher-scholars matter: Some insights from FSSE and NSSE.
With a desire for students to innovate and inquire, teacher-scholars are increasingly important, this article explores teacher-scholars in more depth.
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109. Kuh, G., & Ikenberry, S. October 2009. More than you think, less than we need: Learning outcomes assessment in American higher education.
The 2009 report from the National Institute of Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA) is based on information from more than 1,500 regionally accredited degree-granting institutions in the U.S. The NILOA study, titled “More Than You Think, Less Than We Need: Learning Outcomes Assessment in American Higher Education,” summarizes what colleges and universities are doing to measure student learning.
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110. Kuh, G.D. 2003. Assessing what really matters to student learning: Inside the National Survey of Student Engagement.
This article covers the history and current importance of NSSE. Access to article is through JSTOR, which may require login information.
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111. Law, P. 2015. Digital badging at The Open University: Recognition for informal learning.
Awarding badges to recognize achievement is not a new development. Digital badging now offers new ways to recognize learning and motivate learners, providing evidence of skills and achievements in a variety of formal and informal settings. Badged open courses (BOCs) were piloted in various forms by the Open University (OU) in 2013 to provide a digital acknowledgement for learners’ participation in three entry-level, unsupported courses: Learning to Learn and Succeed with Maths Parts 1 and 2. The desire to build on the OU’s badging pilots is informed by research into the motivations and demographic profiles of learners using the free educational resources which the OU makes available through its OpenLearn platform. This research activity was repeated in 2014 and found that an increasing proportion of informal learners is keen to have their informal learning achievements recognized. This paper outlines how the evaluation of the 2013 pilots has informed the development of a suite of free employability and skills BOCs in 2014 that are assessed through the deployment of Moodle quizzes. It also discusses how the motivational aspects of digital badging support the growth in free, micro-credentialized courses against a backdrop of MOOC providers issuing certification for fee. The BOC project, which aligns with the University’s Journeys from Informal to Formal Learning strategy, will help to provide accessible routes into the University for students who might not otherwise have the opportunity to participate and supports the OU Charter to promote the educational well-being of the community.
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112. League for Innovation and Questionmark. 2004. An assessment framework for the community college: Measuring student learning and achievement as a means of demonstrating institutional effectiveness.
This white paper was composed by an advisory team of community college practitioners and assessment experts and provides a framework for assessing student learning. The framework includes: a) assessment vocabulary; b) implementation processes, and 3) methods for data generation and reporting. The goals is to, besides providing this formal structure, to establish a common language so that all the assessment stakeholders could understand each other well when communicating.
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113. Linn, M. and Chiu, J. Winter 2011. Combining learning and assessment to improve science education.
This articles examines high-stakes testing and implications to science education offering alternative assessment to gauge student learning.
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114. Liu, A., Sharkness, J., & Pryor, J. H. 2008. Findings from the 2007 administration of Your First College Year (YFCY): National aggregates.
This document provides a historical overview of the YFCY survey, information on the administration of the survey, and numerous results from the 2007 national survey.
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115. Low, L. 2000. Are college students satisfied? A national analysis of changing expectations.
This report is the result of a national study of 745 college and universities. It examines student satisfaction data over a 4-year period from 1994-95 through 1997-98.
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116. Lowry H. J., Howery, C. B., Myers, J. P., et al. . 2005. Creating an Effective Assessment Plan for the Sociology Major.
This resource serves as a manual on assessment specifically prepared for departments and programs that offer an undergraduate major in sociology. It was guided by best practices of assessment for higher education, and could serve as a resource for those conducting assessment work in other departments.
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117. Lynn, S. A., & Robinson-Backmon, I. 2005. Course-level outcomes assessment: An investigation of an upper-division undergraduate accounting course and the factors that influence learning .
This study examined the association between a course-level embedded assessment tool, earning performance outcomes (i.e., final numerical course average), and factors that influence learning goal outcomes.
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118. Maki, P. L. 2004. Assessing for learning, building a sustainable commitment across the institution.
This book offers colleges and universities a framework and tools to design an effective and collaborative assessment process appropriate for their culture and institution. It encapsulates the approach that Peggy Maki has developed and refined through the hundreds of successful workshops she has presented nationally and internationally.
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119. McClenney, K. M., & Marti, C. N. 2006. Exploring relationships between student engagement and student outcomes in community colleges: Report on validation research.
This research documents the validity of the CCSSE through case studies of Florida Community Colleges System, Achieving the Dream, and Hispanic Student Success Consortium Institutions.
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120. McIlvenny, L. . 2015. Open badges – glorified award stickers or valuable learning credentials? .
The article discusses the concept of badges to acknowledge skills and competencies by rank and achievement. It highlights the development of digital badges which shows the levels of achievement through the increase stages of difficulty that represent motivational value. It examines the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) in the society.
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121. McKinney, K. 2011, January 28. Teaching resources and innovations library for sociology (TRAILS): A small sampling of what we know about learning from cross-discipline scholarship of teaching and learning and educational research.
This resource provides various principles obtained through the literature on cognition of learning. The information is relevant across all stages of the learning process: generalized notions of the learning process applicable to students, actions institutions can take to facilitate and amplify the learning process, and best practices for college teachers.
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122. McLeod, S. H., & Soven, M. (Eds.). 2000. Writing across the curriculum: A guide to developing programs.
How can institutions develop and sustain writing across the curriculum (WAC) programmes? This collection with contributions from leading WAC directors and consultants, helps answer this question. Topics covered include: how to get started; how to run WAC workshops; what role administrators can play; and how WAC can be integrated into the university curriculum. There are also chapters on developing permanent institutional support for WAC.
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123. McNeice-Stallard, B. E., & Stallard, C. M. 2012. Measuring sustainability of outcomes assessment.
This qualitative study evaluates how well faculty at a two-year community college in the United States used assessment of student learning outcomes (SLOs) for pedagogical/curricular change; how well the “use of results” of 1,200 courses demonstrate, from a qualitative perspective, the engagement of faculty in SLOs; and how well discussions with faculty and managers demonstrate the value of SLOs. The results indicated that some faculty were going to be doing some curricular or pedagogical changes because of the assessment results.
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124. Millet, C. M., Payne, D. G., Dwyer, C. A., Stickler, L. M., & Alexiou, J. J. 2008. A culture of evidence: An evidence-centered approach to accountability for student learning outcomes.
This paper presents a framework that institutions of higher education can use to improve, revise and introduce comprehensive systems for the collection and dissemination of information on student learning outcomes. For faculty and institutional leaders grappling with the many issues and nuances inherent in assessing student learning, the framework offers a practical approach that allows them to meet demands for accountability in ways that respect the diverse attributes of students, faculty and the institutions themselves.
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125. Millet, C. M., Stickler, L. M., Payne, D. G. & Dwyer, C. A. 2007. A culture of evidence: Critical features of assessments for postsecondary student learning.
This paper reviews "review the major tools in use today for assessing student learning and student engagement, an important aspect of the educational environment. The goal of this review is to provide a high-level overview of the major assessment tools so that higher education stakeholders can continue the national dialogue with even greater understanding of the current state of the art tools in assessing student learning in higher education. This paper provides an overview at the “30,000-foot level,” which we believe will be useful to policymakers, national organizations, and two- and four-year college and university presidents and provosts."
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126. Mislevy, R. J., Almond, R. G., & Lukas, J. F. 2003. A brief introduction to evidence-centered design.
One approach to assessment is evidence-centered assessment design (ECD). This report describes the basics of ECD and presents information on a framework and possibly delivery systems using ECD.
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127. Morelon, C. 2006. Building institutional capacity for informed decision making to enhance student learning outcomes.
Although a good deal has been written on accountability, accreditation, assessment, and institutional effectiveness, there is a dearth of examples from Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) about how they use these processes for institutional improvement. Given the press for institutions to provide evidence of their impact on student learning, resource-dependent HBCUs are challenged to meet such demands. The purpose of this research was to better understand factors that compelled one institution to become more data-centered in its decision making in order to affect student learning outcomes.
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128. Museus, S. D. 2007. Using qualitative methods to assess diverse institutional cultures.
"This chapter focuses on describing how institutional researchers can use qualitative cultural assessments to better understand the role that their campuses play in shaping individual and group behaviors and experiences. A special emphasis is given to the implications of institutional diversity in the processes of designing and conducting assessments of institutional cultures." (p. 30)
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129. Naser, C.R., Donoghue, K., & Burrell, S. (2012). The eyes and ears of engagement: Using RAs to assess resident engagement.
This article analyzes the effectiveness of an effort to assess the extent of student engagement at Fairfield University through the assistance of resident assistants (RAs) and the adaptation of a methodology used by the university’s schools of engineering and education. Asking RAs to participate in an assessment of their residents provides several clear benefits: the assessment rubric sets clear expectations in plain language; the rubric sets out clear expectations to the residents; and the assessment data appear to be a valid indicator of student engagement and allow the institution to identify students who may benefit from additional counseling or attention.
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130. NASFA, Association of International Educators. 2010. Assessment and evaluation for international educators.
"This document provides essential background and information to allow international educators to participate in assessment and evaluation, and it summarizes what is being done and by whom, identifying key resources and existing practices for international educators."
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131. National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA). 2009. 2009 survey questionnaire.
This survey is for examining institution level assessment activities regarding campus assessment practices. Please contact us before using it for research or external purposes.
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132. National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA). 2010. 2010 survey questionnaire.
This survey is for surveying at the program and department level. Please contact us before using it for research or external purposes.
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133. National Research Council. 2001. Knowing what students know: The science and design of educational assessment.
Seeking to understand the role of cognitive and measurement science advances on assessment? This report by the National Research Council tackles these issues and more in this report examining the science of learning.
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134. Nunley, C., Bers, T, & Manning, T. July 2011. Learning outcomes assessment in community colleges.
As community colleges becoming increasingly important in educating students across the country, more emphasis is being placed on community colleges to provide the public with information on learning outcomes of its students. In this tenth NILOA Occasional Paper, Charlene Nunley, Trudy Bers and Terri Manning describe the complex environment of community colleges as it relates to student learning outcomes assessment. Results from previous surveys of community college instituitional researchers and chief academic officers are analyzed in addition to short vignettes of examples of good practices at various community colleges. Through prior experience either working with institutions or within their own institution, suggestions are offered from the authors in an effort to make student learning outcomes assessment more effective and transparent.
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135. Nyamekye, A. September 2011. Putting myself to the test.
In a routine evaluation, my principal praised my organization, management, and facilitation, but posed the following question: “How do you know the kids are really getting it?” She urged me to develop more-rigorous assessments of student learning. Ego and uncertainty inspired me to measure the impact of my instruction. I thought I was effective, but I wanted proof.
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136. O’Byrne, W. I., Schenke, K., Willis, J. E, III, & Hickey, D. T . 2015. Digital badges: Recognizing, assessing, and motivating learners in and out of school contexts.
Digital badges are web-enabled tokens of accomplishment that contain specific claims and evidence about learning and achievement along with detailed evidence supporting those claims. Badges traditionally consist of an image and relevant metadata (e.g., badge name, description, criteria, issuer, evidence, date issued, standards, and tags). This column features findings from recent research examining the design principles for open digital badges that emerged across the 30 organizations awarded grants to develop badge content in the 2012 Badges for Lifelong Learning Initiative. The column focuses this inspection of the principles identified in the research (recognition, assessment, and motivation) on one student in the MOUSE outreach program. Results from this column provide guidance for educators in and out of traditional learning contexts.
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137. Ortlieb, E., & Cheek, E. H. 2012, March. Using informative assessments towards effective literacy instruction.
Examples of effective literacy assessment practices for different student populations are offered in this book.
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138. Pace, C. R. 1982. Achievement and the quality of student effort.
This report uses CSEQ data (collected from 12,000 undergraduate students from 40 colleges over a period of three years) to examine the relationships between the quality of student effort and student achievement.
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139. Pace, C. R. 1984. Measuring the quality of college student experiences: An account of the development and use of the college student experiences questionnaire.
This report chronicles the development and use of the College Student Experiences Questionnaire.
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140. Pang, K. . 2008. The metacognitive expertise assessment tool: A predictive scale for academic achievement across disciplines.
The results of the ME-AT, or Metacognitive Expertise Assessment Tool, are highlighted in this book
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141. Paris, D. 2011. Catalyst for change: The CIC/CLA consortium.
The CIC Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) Consortium updates their 2008 report with this final report of their experience with the CLA in 48 institutions.
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142. Parker, H. E. . 2015. Digital badges as effective assessment tools.
This brief, published by the National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment, offers an overview of the purposes and uses of digital badges.
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143. Paulson, K. 2001. An annotated bibliography on competencies.
Literature on competency-based learning models is presented through a bibliography including: a general introduction and historical underpinnings of compentency-based learning in postsecondary education, the usage of of competency-based learning in the admissions and placement process, the usage of compentencies in postsecondary settings, a usage of competencies during the conclusion of college programs, and efficacious institutional usage of competencies for improvement.
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144. Paxman, C. 2011. Map Your Way to Speech Success! Employing Mind Mapping as a Speech Preparation Technique.
This article presents information regarding how mind mapping may help students in public speaking classes to reduce speech anxiety and become more confident in the ability to give a speech. Mind mapping has the ability to help students with their speech outlines and thus improve their ability to communicate information. In illustrating the benefits of mind mapping for speech classes, the author discusses a mind mapping activity for speech classes.
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145. Pedro, L., Santos, C., Aresta, M., & Almeida, S. 2015. Peer-supported badge attribution in a collaborative learning platform: The SAPO campus case.
The development of technology and namely of the Internet changed the way learners and educational institutions see and understand learning, collaboration and knowledge construction. In the educational field, game-based elements such as digital badges have been proposed and used to assess, recognize and validate knowledge construction and are considered as an effective way to improve and structure collaborative peer-based learning communities. This paper introduces the SAPO Campus badging system, a project that is being developed at the University of Aveiro (Portugal), which addresses the potential of a peer-supported badging system in the promotion of a more participatory learning community.
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146. Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & Mckeachie, W. J. 1993. Reliability and predictive validity of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ).
This paper reports on the reliability and predicative capabilities of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). The development of this questionnaire began in the 1980s. It focuses on both motivational and learning strategies of students. The paper provides statistical evidence regarding the effectiveness of the questionnaire and concludes by stating that it is both “relatively” reliable and demonstrates degrees of predictive validity.
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147. Prineas, M. & Cini, M. October 2011. Assessing learning in online education: The role of technology in improving student outcomes.
This paper focuses on how online education can impact how we understand and assess student learning outcomes. The authors begin by tracing the development of both online education and assessment practice, arguing that little crossover has occurred between the two even though opportunities to connect the movements abound including data mining, program design, real time program changes, and individualized analytics for students. This paper concludes with a discussion about the changing role for faculty in this new paradigm of online education and assessment.
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148. Pryor, J. H., Hurtado, S. Saenz, V. B., Korn, J. S., Santos, J. L., & Korn, W. S. 2006. The American freshman: Forty year trends.
This report analyzes the CIRP survey from the past forty years.
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149. Ramírez, K. 2011. ePerformance: Crafting, rehearsing, and presenting the ePortfolio persona.
ePerformance: Crafting, Rehearsing, and Presenting the ePortfolio Persona exposes vital intersections between pedagogy and performance to reveal how using ePortfolio encourages not only student-centered learning, but facilitates collaboration through cooperative exchanges. Productive interactivity with audiences who actively influence process, content, and outcomes displaces classroom hierarchies and the passive absorption of predetermined material. It is the powerful intersection of multiple modes of performance that establishes the ePortfolio medium as an elastic, ultra-accessible theatrical arena in which students may create, rehearse, and present themselves. By recognizing that they are not only at the center of learning, but that they are one of multiple centers in a multicentric teaching and learning dynamic, students activate the discourse of which their work is already a part.
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150. Randall, D., Harrison, J., & West, R. . 2013. Giving credit where credit is due: Designing open badges for a technology integration course.

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151. Reddy, M. 2007. Rubrics and the enhancement of student learning.
Empirical research on the effectiveness of rubrics has primarily concentrated on its contribution towards improvement in academic performance, as reflected in attainment of higher grades. Its role in assessing the other dimensions of Student Learning (SL) such as attitudes, behaviours and perceptions that affect students’ inclination and ability to learn has been largely unexplored. There is also a paucity of literature on how rubrics can be used for informing course delivery and course design. The objectives of the study are derived from these gaps in literature.
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152. Reid, A., & Paster, D. 2013. Digital badges in the classrooms.
Digital badge programs, which were originally developed for MOOC classes and distance learning, are becoming integrated into traditional course formats. Learners are rewarded with a digital badge upon completion of certain skills, and early research argues that badges can increase motivation and add incentive to the learning process.
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153. Richardson, J. T. E. 2005. Instruments for obtaining student feedback: A review of the literature.
This paper reviews the research evidence concerning the use of formal instruments to measure students’ evaluations of their teachers, students’ satisfaction with their programmes and students’ perceptions of the quality of their programmes.
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154. Richards-Schuster, K., Ruffolo, M. C., Nicoll, K. L., Distelrath, C., & Galura, J.A. 2014. Using ePortfolios to assess program goals, integrative learning, and civic engagement: A case example.
Analyzing 51 student ePortfolios from a capstone class for an Interdisciplinary Community Action and Social Change minor, the authors share results on how ePortfolios can be utilized to assess civic engagement. The authors also reveal the program’s impact.
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155. Roszkowski, M. J., & Ricci, R. 2004. Measurement of importance in a student satisfaction questionnaire: Comparison of the direct and indirect methods for establishing attribute importance.
Members of a research- or measurement-minded audience may find this article interesting. The authors examine relationships between importance and satisfaction on dual-scale student satisfaction questionnaires (like the SSI).
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156. Ruiz, S., Sharkness, J. Kelly, K. R., DeAngelo, L., & Pryor, J. H. 2009. Findings from the 2009 administration of the Your First College Year (YFCY): National aggregates.
This report summarizes general findings from the 2009 YFCY.
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157. Schuh, J. H. & Gansemer-Topf, A. M. December 2010. The role of student affairs in student learning assessment.
Student affairs professionals are expected to be knowledgeable about the student experience. Thus, it follows that they can and should play an important role in assessing student learning. We hope this paper will persuade faculty and institutional leaders that student affairs staff with the requisite expertise should be involved in collecting, interpreting, and using evidence of student learning for both accountability and improvement.
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158. Schulenburger, D. & Keller, C. 2010. Interpretation of findings from the test validity study for the voluntary system of accountability.
This document explains how the test validity study (TVS) results inform learning outcomes measurement within the Voluntary System of Accountability (VSA).
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159. Seymour, E., Wiese, D., Hunter, A. & Daffinrud, S.M. 2000. Creating a better mousetrap: On-line student assessment of their learning gains.
This paper discusses the development of an instrument that is designed to summarize the learning gains that students perceive they have made, both as a consequence of particular aspects of class pedagogy, and of the teacher’s pedagogical approach.
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160. Shavelson, R. J. 2007. A brief history of student learning assessment: How we got where we are and a proposal for where to go next.
A history of assessment as well as a brief overview of the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) are of focus.
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161. Shavelson, R. J. 2007. Assessing student learning responsibly: From history to an audacious proposal.
This article presents a brief overview on learning outcomes and their connection to the Spelling’s Commission and then presents a brief history of learning outcomes by examining different tests (including GRE, CLA, and MAPP).
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162. Shenoy, G. November 2011. Why assess student learning? What the measuring stick series revealed.
NILOA staff conducted a content analysis of the essays and readers’ comments. Three main findings emerged. First, general agreement does not exist as to how to define quality. In addition, who should be responsible for ensuring quality and how to measure it are unclear. In the absence of consensus on these important issues, we hope readers will use the NILOA website to continue the conversation about this important topic. And now, I offer more detail about what my analysis found.
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163. Snider-Lotz, T. G. 2002. Designing an evidence-centered assessment program.
Additional information on evidence-centered assessment programs and design may be found here: http://ecd.sri.com/
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164. Sobania, N. & Braskamp, L.A. 2009. Study abroad or study away: It's not merely semantics.
The authors in this article discuss how we need to think differently about studying abroad in an increasingly international world.
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165. Springfield, E., Gwozdek, A., & Smiler, A.P. 2015. Transformation rubric for engaged learning: A tool and method for measuring life-changing experiences.
This paper shares how the Transformation Rubric for Engaged Learning is an effective assessment tool in relation to ePortfolios, including how it can be replicated and used in a variety of current assessment methods.
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166. Sullivan, T. A., Mackie, C., Massy, W. F., & Sinha, E. 2012. Improving measurement of productivity in higher education.
A report recently released by the National Research Council titled, "Improving Measurement of Productivity in Higher Education," discusses various ways to measure institutional quality and college productivity.
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167. The Center for Learning Outcomes Assessment, Inc. 2011. University learning outcomes assessment (UniLOA): National report of means, 2008-2009.
"This report presents mean scores for each of the UniLOA’s 70 items and its seven domains as well as a number of demographic-specific categories."
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168. The Center for Learning Outcomes Assessment, Inc. 2009. University Learning Outcomes Assessment Validity.
Because the UniLOA relies on student self-reported behavior, it must be considered an indirect measure of student learning outcomes. The reliability of student self-report has received considerable attention in the past two decades as the use of assessment instruments relying on self-report has increased in both availability and use in higher education.
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169. The Civic Learning and Democratic Engagement National Task Force. 2012. A crucible moment: College learning and democracy's future.
The importance of civic learning in colleges and universities is the focus of this report. A civic institutional matrix for institutional use is included.
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170. Tierney, R., & Simon, M. 2004. What’s still wrong with rubrics: Focusing on the consistency of performance criteria across scale levels.
This article examines the guidelines and principles in current educational literature that relate to performance criteria in scoring rubrics. The focus is on the consistency of the language that is used across the scale levels to describe performance criteria for learning and assessment. The article aims to assist rubric developers in creating or adapting scoring rubrics with consistent performance criteria descriptors.
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171. Turbow, D. J., Werner, T. P., Lowe, E., & Vu, H. Q. 2016, Fall. Norming a written communication rubric in a graduate health science course.
This study aimed to determine whether or not the norming of a written communication rubric improved scoring consistency among clinical faculty in a critical thinking course. The benefits of a formalized norming process are described.
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172. Turbow, D., & Evener, J. 2016, July. Norming a VALUE rubric to assess graduate information literacy skills.
The study evaluated whether a modified version of the information literacy Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education (VALUE) rubric would be useful for assessing the information literacy skills of graduate health sciences students.
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173. Various. 2011, Volume 23, Number 5. Assessment update: Progress, trends, and practices in higher education.
This publication offers insights on wide-ranging issues surrounding assessment. This particular issue features articles that focus on trends within the field for the past ten years, budgets, junior faculty involvement in assessment, and course-embedded assessement.
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174. Volkwein, J. F. September 2011. Gaining ground: The role of institutional research in assessing student outcomes and demonstrating institutional effectiveness.
The work of institutional researchers is gaining importance on today's campuses. Included in institutional researchers wide range of duties is a significant role in student outcomes assessment. In this eleventh NILOA Occasional Paper, J. Fredericks Volkwein leads us through their roles. Analysis of data obtained from the Center for the Study of Higher Education at Penn State’s survey “National Survey of Institutional Research Offices in 2008-09,” gathered from over 3,300 professional staff is included. Overall, this occasional paper helps to better understand the role, responsibilities and challenges faced by institutional researchers in relation to student outcomes assessment on their campuses.
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175. Walvoord, B. E. 2004. Assessment clear and simple: A practical guide for institutions, departments, and general education.
"The first edition of this book became an essential go-to guide for anyone who participates in the assessment process in higher education. With the increased pressure to perform assessment to demonstrate accountability, Assessment Clear and Simple is needed more than ever. This second edition of the classic resource offers a concise, step-by-step guide that helps make assessment simple, cost-efficient, and useful to an institution."
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176. WICHE Cooperative for Educational Technologies (WCET). 2010. No significant difference.
This website has been designed to serve as a companion piece to Thomas L. Russell's book, "The No Significant Difference Phenomenon" (2001, IDECC, fifth edition). Mr. Russell's book is a fully indexed, comprehensive research bibliography of 355 research reports, summaries and papers that document no significant differences (NSD) in student outcomes between alternate modes of education delivery, with a foreword by Dr. Richard E. Clark. Previous editions of the book were provided electronically; the fifth edition is the first to be made available in print from IDECC (The International Distance Education Certification Center).
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177. Wilson, D., & Conyers, M. 2013. Five big ideas for effective teaching: Connecting mind, brain, and education research to classroom practice.
In their most recent project, Five Big Ideas for Effective Teaching, Wilson and Conyers present and describe the influential, big-picture findings from the field of cognitive psychology in the past decade. Additionally to providing some introductory information about these concepts, they also explain how this information can be harnessed and put into use by educators in the field.
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178. Young, J. W. 2007. Validity of the Measure of Academic Proficiency and Progress (MAPP) test: A summary from ETS.
A brief report by the Center for Validity Research of the Educational Testing Service on the validity of the MAPP, including an overview on test structure, scoring, and construct validity.
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179. Zull, J.E. 2011. From brain to mind: Using neuroscience to guide change in education.
In From Brain to Mind, biochemist and neuroscientist James Zull argues that in order to make substantive changes in how we deliver education to students, we need to understand how the brain processes information and organizes it into a meaningful whole. In order to do so, he argues for a distinction between the brain and the mind, as well as offers an explanation of how the function of the brain may interact with our environment in order to help create our mental representations of the world around us.
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